Pakistan’s Women Heroes : Sarah Suhail

Women who Named the Unnamed
Tribute to the Brilliance

Sarah Suhail
queer feminist activist

Building Spaces of Love, Acceptance
and Compassion for Pakistani Queers

By Kyla Pasha

She reminds you that she’s walking next to you
when you think you’re behind her, or in front of her
.’

Those who know Sarah Suhail know two things about her from the off: she smiles a lot, and she can probably help you out. Sarah, born in a family of doctors in Lahore in 1982, is a lawyer, teacher, and avid learner who is known among her friends and comrades as generous with her time, spirit, and resources. She has been an integral part of feminist, queer, and working peoples’ organizing coming out of Lahore in the last 15 years as she has lent her great diversity of energies to a number of movements and formations in that time. In 2008, she co-founded Chay Magazine with me, Pakistan’s first known effort to have a consistent conversation around sex and sexuality. Around that time she became involved with organizing mutual learning and support with queer people and, over a decade on, she continues to prove herself instrumental to building autonomy, self-sufficiency, and strength among Pakistani queers.

Beyond these words, it is hard to encapsulate Sarah’s life thus far in a chronology that makes sense. That is to say, with the wealth of her life still before her, Sarah has managed to hoover up a tremendous amount of knowledge across a wide breadth of arenas. She is a lawyer of the high court and a member of the Punjab Bar council, yet is known mostly for her work in (first private and then) public sector universities as a teacher and mentor. Her own undergraduate degrees are in Economics and Law, and her masters and PhD are in women’s studies; across all of which she has followed a passion for justice.

With feminist comrades, Sarah organized a public conversation between women on ‘Sexism in leftist and progressive spaces‘, an event that sparked the formation of The Feminist Collective (TFC). TFC is an autonomous feminist collective that searches for and creates opportunities to intervene constructively to highlight important feminist intersections. Simultaneously, she has worked with and learned from the struggles of fisherfolk, landless peasants, prisoners, and escaped bonded labourers.

I asked her comrades, our mutual comrades, what they would say about her if they were given this job. One said, ‘For me, it is her moral clarity in the pursuit of justice, even in the most befuddling and harsh circumstances, — the kind that gives you the strength to speak truth to power yet always remain open to growth and learning — that have truly made me see her as a mentor and moral guide in many respects.’ Another, supposedly just riffing with me so I could get started on this piece, said, ‘She reminds you that she’s walking next to you when you think you’re behind her, or in front of her.’ And a little while later, ‘She’s everyone’s unknown heart.’

That this resonates with me is no surprise to anyone who knows that Sarah Suhail has been my first and last advisor, confidante, co-learner, and friend every minute that I have known her. She stands among the women in this celebration fidgeting restlessly and smiling shyly: Sarah understands herself as one in a web of many working towards building something better, and more just, than what we currently endure. In that struggle, wherever she can be of service, Sarah shows up.

Below is a Q&A with Sarah.

When did you realize that you were different?
I had a sense of my difference from an early age but it manifested itself as unease with the expectations to conform with conventional femininity. I realized I was properly queer when I was 17 and I fell in love with my first girlfriend.

When did you own it in public?
I’ve been doing queer organizing since 2007-2008 and we started working underground very slowly trying to create a sense of community. But over time, most people in the movements that I work with know that I’m queer. I spoke about it at a conference in Lahore, but largely I try not to talk about it too openly since security is always a concern in our context.

How was it for you to grow up queer in Lahore?
Growing up queer in Lahore was both isolating and wondrous. Isolating since I didn’t know anyone else like me so I thought that I was alone and wondrous because since I felt intrinsically different I felt I had my own world where I had to fight at every step to be different but still felt loved by mother and the rest of my family. It was strange I guess, so they never really made a big deal about how I was gender non-conforming and gave me space to be who I wanted even when outside everyone sort of taunted and bullied me for not fitting in. Over time though as I grew, I enjoyed the freedom of not having to conform to the requirements of convectional femininity. I didn’t fully recognize the difference in upbringing since my grandmother was the head of our household and I was essentially being brought up in a matriarchy. It was a beautiful and magical thing that made me believe that I could achieve anything I put my mind to irrespective of gender.

How about queer communities?
For the queer community in Lahore we are slowly but surely building spaces of love, acceptance and compassion even when we face the violence of compulsory heterosexuality and natal rejection. This is violence faced from people closest to us. So, to heal and recover from it and build community that doesn’t replicate those toxic patterns is a slow and painstaking process. We are loving and courageously engaged in this process.

Do queer women feel supported by the feminist movement/s in Punjab and Pakistan?
The interface of the feminist movement and the queer movement is so important because we can’t do it alone. Feminist ethics, solidarity, poetry and openness that the women’s movement creates in society is foundational for queer acceptance. That is why some of our work focuses on how our queerness helped develop our feminist consciousness and how our feminism impacts our queerness.
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Kyla Pasha is poet and feminist activist based in Lahore. Her first volume of poetry, High Noon and the Body, was released in 2010. She is also the co-editor of Two Loves: Faiz’s Letters from Jail. Kyla researches religious life and national structures interfacing with sexuality; and is pursuing a PhD in Religious Studies at Arizona State University, focusing on ritual spaces and utopic longings in marginal Muslim communities. She is currently working on her second book of poems.

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Women Who Named the Unnamed
Pakistan’s & Local Women Heroes

Saturday, September 28, 2019
6 – 9 PM
Centre Stage
Surrey City Hall
13450 – 104 Avenue
Surrey, BC, Canada V3T 1V8
Phone: 604-591-4011

Buy your ticket online at this link:
tickets.surrey.ca
Tickets $25
Box Office : 604-501-5566

More information
Women-who-named-the-unnamed
In-gratitude-we-celebrate-our-women-heroes
View our objectives and goals.

We gratefully acknowledge
that we are on the unceded Coast Salish territories of
the Semiahmoo, Katzie, Kwikwetlem, Kwantlen,
Qayqayt, Tsawwassen, Musqueam,
Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations.

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Pakistan’s Women Heroes : Madeeha Gauhar

Women who Named the Unnamed
Tribute to the Brilliance

Madeeha Gauhar (1956-2018)
theatre director/producer/actor

By Hina Imam & Saroop Soofi

She did not just swim against the tide, she turned the tide.

Born in 1956 in Karachi, Madeeha Gauhar was an actor, director, playwright and women’s rights activist who co-founded Ajoka (present day) Theatre. She studied English Literature from Kinnaird College Lahore, and later went to England to pursue a degree in theatre sciences from University College London.

Madeeha created platforms for human rights activism at a time when General Zia-ul-Haq’s oppressive, dictatorial regime had blocked all avenues for political expression in Pakistan. In 1983, she began Ajoka Theatre with her partner playwright/director/actor Shahid Mahmood Nadeem (quoted above), where she combined conventional Western theatre techniques with local performing traditions and cultural nuances to produce her work. The group began operating out of the homes of its members, using money raised from personal contributions and donations by activists, supporters and audiences. Soon, it built up a reputation for taking up bold and topical themes, including the eroding rights of women, the plight of bonded labor, minorities facing an assault on their rights, and religious intolerance that had been given official patronage.

With censorship in force, Madeeha and her band lived with the fear of arrest, and worse, she had to quit her job as lecturer at a girl’s college because her theater activism was intolerable to the regime. She was also briefly jailed for demonstrating, along with other women activists, against the discriminatory Law of Evidence in 1984.

Ajoka, mainly operating in Urdu language, became one of Pakistan’s foremost theater groups with 40 original plays and adaptations to its credit. The list includes Bullah (on Punjabi Sufi poet Bulleh Shah) first performed in Lahore in 2001, Kaun Hai Yeh Gustaakh (Who is this Arrogant?) Lahore 2012, Lo Phir Basant Aayi (Spring is here again) Lahore 2014, and, Kaun Banega Badshah (Who will become the King?) Islamabad in 2015. Madeeha’s play ‘Burqavaganza’, a satire on the society, was banned by Pakistan’s parliament and Ajoka was threatened with sanctions. The local non-governmental cultural organisations and activist, however, went ahead, translated it in other languages, and it was performed in several other countries.

Madeeha was nominated for Nobel Peace Prize in 2005, was awarded Prince Claus Award in the Netherlands in 2006, the International Theatre Pasta Award in 2007, and she received the country’s highest award, Pride of Performance for the revival of Pakistani theatre.

Madeeha lost her battle with cancer in April 2018.
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Hina Imam is a journalist living in Vancouver who previously worked in Saudi Arabia and Pakistan before moving to Canada to pursue a master’s degree at UBC. Hina writes about social justice, race and representation, gender, and urban issues.

Saroop Soofi is a visual artist, researcher and an art educationist born in Lahore, Pakistan. She has exhibited her work in solo and group shows in Canada and Pakistan where she has received awards and distinctions.

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Women Who Named the Unnamed
Pakistan’s & Local Women Heroes

Saturday, September 28, 2019
6 – 9 PM
Centre Stage
Surrey City Hall
13450 – 104 Avenue
Surrey, BC, Canada V3T 1V8
Phone: 604-591-4011

Buy your ticket online at this link:
tickets.surrey.ca
Tickets $25
Box Office : 604-501-5566

More information
Women-who-named-the-unnamed
In-gratitude-we-celebrate-our-women-heroes
View our objectives and goals.

We gratefully acknowledge
that we are on the unceded Coast Salish territories of
the Semiahmoo, Katzie, Kwikwetlem, Kwantlen,
Qayqayt, Tsawwassen, Musqueam,
Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations.

..

Pakistan’s Women Heroes : Sabeen Mahmud

Women who Named the Unnamed
Tribute to the Brilliance

Sabeen Mahmud (1975-2015)
arts activist/poet/organizer

By Fauzia Rafique

Sabeen Mahmud was a computer programmer and graphic designer who had a clear vision of her world and her own role in it. She taught herself these skills not just to make a living but to create public spaces for free expression in a city she saw as chaotic and oppressed by a system based in a military industrial complex. In her own words, she wanted to create ‘a safe haven for artists, musicians, writers, poets, activists, and thinkers— essentially anyone who wanted to escape the relentless tyranny of the city for a little while. If I built it, would anyone come?’

She sure built it, and her vision brought enough support to establish an institution called The Second Floor or 2tf, combining art and literary presentations with opportunities for vibrant social interaction by inculcating secularism, freedom of speech, non-discrimination and equality. Soon, the surrounding religious and governmental structures began to see this as an unwanted activity. Sabeen began to receive death threats from conservative religion-based outfits in 2013, and later, from the country’s security agencies. She continued to bring out some of the burning issues to public attention including the devastating reality of the people of the province of Baluchistan where Baluch activists, political workers and men in general were, and are, made to disappear by para-military agencies.

In 2014, Baluch families and activists staged a 3000 mile three-month long march from Quetta to Islamabad to protest the over 3000 documented cases of enforced disappearances and extrajudicial killings that had occurred since 2005, and to demand the return of their loved ones. Sabeen had organized talks and discussions on this issue since 2011, in 2015, she presented an event called ‘Unsilencing Baluchistan – take two’. After the event, Sabeen was driving home with her mother when unidentified armed men from the para-military agencies fired at the car injuring her mother, and killing Sabeen.

She was not a dangerous criminal to have been killed like that, she was a visionary, informed, articulate, her execution-style killing was a warning to other democracy-loving people to stay silent. Indeed, after this, many poets, writers, bloggers and teachers were killed, tortured or made to disappear in Pakistan’s cities. Yet what Sabeen stood for, did not disappear; her vision, her t2f, her Peace Niche, her kindnesses, her humour- all remain and flourish in Karachi and Beyond.

Wishing a Happy Sabeen Day to us all, today and every day.

Fauzia Rafique is a novelist, poet, editor and blogger. She has published two novels, ‘The Adventures of SahebaN: Biography of a Relentless Warrior‘ and ‘Skeena’. A collection of her poems ‘Holier than Life’ was published as an ebook in 2013. She is a co-founder and the coordinator of Surrey Muse Arts society (SMAS).
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Women Who Named the Unnamed
Pakistan’s & Local Women Heroes

Saturday, September 28, 2019
6 – 9 PM
Centre Stage
Surrey City Hall
13450 – 104 Avenue
Surrey, BC, Canada V3T 1V8
Phone: 604-591-4011

Buy your ticket online at this link:
tickets.surrey.ca
Tickets $25
Box Office : 604-501-5566

More information
Women-who-named-the-unnamed
In-gratitude-we-celebrate-our-women-heroes
View our objectives and goals.

We gratefully acknowledge
that we are on the unceded Coast Salish territories of
the Semiahmoo, Katzie, Kwikwetlem, Kwantlen,
Qayqayt, Tsawwassen, Musqueam,
Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations.

..

Pakistan’s Women Heroes : Asma Jahangir

Women who Named the Unnamed
Tribute to the Brilliance

Asma Jahangir (1952-2018)
lawyer/human rights activist/author

By Sameena Siddiqui

Who they are, they are bizarre! But them you can’t extinguish,
They are whole, they are part, mingled so, you can’t distinguish,
Determined! They want the flame of hope to ignite,
Determined! They want life to illuminate like light,
Who they are, they are bizarre! Them you can’t extinguish,
They are whole, they are part, mingled so, you cant distinguish

yeh jo bhi hain ajeeb hain mitai mit na payenge,
yeh kul bhi hain, yeh juz bhi hain, tumhe nazar na ayenge,
yeah zid pe hain ke roshni ka har chirag jal uthe,
yeh zid pe hain ke zindagi mein roshni beekher de,
yeh jo bhi hain ajeeb hai mitai mit na payenge,
yeh kul bhi hain yeh juz bhi hain tumhe nazar na ayenge

(Gauhar Raza, Urdu. Translation, Author)

On 11th Feb 2018, Pakistan lost a willful feminist who insisted on getting her way, becoming audible and laying bare the societal violence directed towards the vulnerable and the marginalized. Asma Jilani Jahangir was the leading Pakistani Human Rights activist, lawyer, feminist and a fearless critic of the military interference in civil society and dictatorial role in politics. She always spoke truth to power and fought for women, minority, and bonded labourers’ rights against religious extremism and state authoritarian injustice in Pakistan. Asma gained international recognition for being the conscience of democratic and progressive Pakistan in the decades when secular voices and civil liberties were constantly under threat.

Asma’s tryst with the authoritarian state began in the year 1971 when she filed a case against the government of the Punjab for the release of her father, Malik Ghulam Jilani, then a Member of the National Assembly who had been incarcerated for protesting against Pakistan’s Army action in East Pakistan, now Bangladesh. This was Asma’s first case, she won it, and it became a landmark that was followed by the interim Constitution of 1972 and by the permanent constitution of 1973. As well, Zulfikar Ali Bhtto, the President and Chief Martial law Administrator at the time, had no choice but to remove the Martial law because of the judicial pronouncements made in that case.

Then in 1983, military dictator General Mohammed Zia-ul-Haq enacted laws for the Islamization of Pakistan based on political motives. Haq’s desire to create an Islamic state where people of diverse ethnicity and pluralities live per Islamic principles was rooted in Pakistan’s genesis narratives. In 1979, he made several attempts to change the essential secular character of Pakistan’s legal system by implementing Islamic criminal law and established the Federal Shariat Court to monitor Pakistan’s adherence to it. Under such a system, women and minorities were subjected to violence, sexual abuse and blasphemy laws to control, punish and outcast those who defied the retrogressive norms and patriarchal oppression.

This was the decade when the Islamic revolution in Iran, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and emergence of Zia’s regime backed by US military forced a backward journey on women in the South Asian subcontinent. In that era of religious extremism, Asma Jahangir became the face of feminist protest against Zia-ul-Haq’s ordinances and fought on the streets against the weaponization of the seventh-century Islamic laws and tenets targeting women, queers and people belonging to minority groups. On the ground, despite several death threats and imprisonments, feminist poets, writers and lawyers joined hands to build a counter momentum to fight the tyranny, politicization of Islam, and institutional compliance with gendered discriminatory legislation.

Asma, her sister Hina Jilani, and other women leaders were determined to resist the moral regulation unleashed by the post-colonial state in the name of religion, and they came together with progressive men to form Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP, 1987)-an independent group, where they openly spoke about the failure of Pakistan’s state to protect women and minority rights as a systemic violation of international human rights. Women founded other organizations such as Women Action Forum (WAF), Punjab Women Lawyers Association (PWLA), AGHS Legal Aid Cell (ALAC). These organizations campaigned against the Hudood Ordinances (1979), provided free legal assistance to the lower caste/class women fleeing sexual violence, domestic abuse or custodial rights.

Interestingly, the regime that attempted to marginalize the women saw the genesis of the most vibrant women’ movement in Pakistan. Despite being seen as a threat to ‘national honour’, Asma Jahangir continued her lifelong work of fighting for legal rights for minorities and eradication of child labour. Later, she won several international awards and served as a United Nations rapporteur on Freedom of religion and was also a trustee at the International Crisis Group.

Today, Asma Jahangir left us with a feminist legacy that teaches us how to willfully refuse to be included in a system that is predicated on inequality and violence.


Sameena Siddiqui is a Ph.D. candidate at the Department of Art History, Visual Art and Theory (AHVA) at UBC. In her doctoral thesis, she is looking at the politics of intertextuality between print, photography, and cinema in the early 20th century India. She did her M.Phil from School of Arts & Aesthetics, JNU, Delhi and has presented her work in several international conferences and residencies.

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Women Who Named the Unnamed
Pakistan’s & Local Women Heroes

Saturday, September 28, 2019
6 – 9 PM
Centre Stage
Surrey City Hall
13450 – 104 Avenue
Surrey, BC, Canada V3T 1V8
Phone: 604-591-4011

Buy your ticket online at this link:
tickets.surrey.ca
Tickets $25
Box Office : 604-501-5566

More information
Women-who-named-the-unnamed
In-gratitude-we-celebrate-our-women-heroes
View our objectives and goals.

We gratefully acknowledge
that we are on the unceded Coast Salish territories of
the Semiahmoo, Katzie, Kwikwetlem, Kwantlen,
Qayqayt, Tsawwassen, Musqueam,
Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations.

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Pakistan’s Woman Heroes : Fahmida Riaz

Women who Named the Unnamed
Tribute to the Brilliance

Fahmid Riaz (1946-2018)
poet/publisher/activist

By Sara Kazmi

On November 21, 2018, dedicated political activist, unflinching social critic and revolutionary feminist poet Fahmida Riaz passed away in Lahore, Pakistan. She will forever be enshrined in the progressive history of the Indian sub-continent for her lifelong pursuit of a poetics of Marxist-feminist dissent, for her matchless contribution to Urdu poetry, prose and regional intellectual culture.

Fahmida was born in Meerut in 1945. She grew up in Hyderabad, Sindh, where her father had been posted. Fahmida began writing poetry at a tender age, and honed her craft through her experiences of student activism in the 1960s. She was part of a powerful student movement resisting Ayub Khan’s ban on student unions, and published her first book of poetry in 1967, titled ‘Patthar ki Zuban : The Tongue of Stone’. Six years would pass before Fahmida Riaz published her explosive poems in ‘Badan Darida : The Torn Body’. The book courted enormous controversy when it was published. Conventional literary critics decried its exploration of female sexuality and bodily experience as “pornographic.” Regardless of where they stood along the ideological spectrum, men — including progressives and Marxists — could only muster a thinly veiled contempt for her bold insertion of a feminist subjectivity at the center of progressive writing. A self-identified Marxist herself, Fahmida’s work put pressure on radical discourse in the subcontinent, compelling her peers to refine the crude resolutions to ‘the woman question’ many male intellectuals were inclined to present.

Returning from England after her first marriage ended in divorce, she met a Sindhi Marxist, her second husband with whom she started running a magazine called Avaaz. Eventually, the magazine’s brave critique of military authoritarianism under General Ziaul Haq’s Martial Law would force Riaz into exile across the border in India. While in exile, Fahmida penned her celebrated poem, ‘Tum bilkul hum jesay niklay : So it turned out you are just like us’ that makes a powerful comment on the rise of religious fascism on both sides of the India-Pakistan border. Similarly, her poem ‘Aman ki asha : A Wish for Peace’ boldly calls out the vested interests of the military in perpetuating hostility.

While still in India at the Jamia Millia University in New Delhi, Fahmida also wrote a book titled ‘Pakistan: literature and society’, that was published in 1986. Although lesser known than Faiz Ahmed Faiz’s reflections on national culture, Fahmida’s essays on Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi and Pashto literatures of resistance envision a national character premised on linguistic plurality. As Amina Yaquin points out, unlike Faiz who remained trapped within a ‘myth of nationalism,’ Riaz offered us a dynamic collective identity, in which Urdu too, must bend to the mould of its newfound homeland. At the core of Fahmida’s argument is a critique of what she terms ‘linguistic chauvinism’ and a corrective to the entrenched position of ‘a Pakistani literature that exists in the perception of the people of North India, written only in Urdu, which again, in their imagination, was the language of the Indian Muslims.’

Counter to the state’s inscription of Pakistani identity through a conflation of Islam and Urdu, Fahmida’s analysis takes us to the regional margins and plies through vernacular literature to unearth local modes of resistance. Her own use of language in her poetry also deliberately subverted the cultural agenda of the Pakistani state, while also avoiding the elitist trap of reifying its place in a nostalgic, Mughal past. For Riaz, ‘Urdu was the language of Kabir and Tulsi, the language of the peasants of UP, CP and Bihar.’

Fahmida’s intellectual trajectory was informed by the critical, anti-colonial legacy of the Progressive Writers Movement. Founded in the late 1920s, it bloomed into a loosely-knit cultural movement that addressed the intertwined histories of class, caste, gender, colonialism and citizenship in South Asia with a commitment to radical transformation. Her politics, and her poems, subvert the border by embedding themselves in a collective historical memory that is rapidly being forgotten 70 years after Partition.

In the latter half of her literary career, Fahmida focused her energies on prose. Her engagement with literary pasts and cultural history led her to pen a historical account of the life of Mazdak, whom she described as a pre-Islamic revolutionary in Iran espousing principles of egalitarianism and social equality. This book, titled ‘Qila e Faramoshi : The Castle of Forgetfulness’, was published in 2017 and is her last work of prose. The drive behind Qila e Faramoshi emanated from her translations of Rumi, and found resonance with her forays into regional literature. She also translated the works of Sindhi poets, Shah Abdul Lateef Bhitai and Sheikh Ayaz, indicating her interest in a cultural project that unearthed marginalised subjectivities in Islamic and regional pasts.

This sensitivity to the productive potential of the peripheries stemmed from her own subjectivity — as a political activist, a progressive poet and most importantly, a woman. The exploration of a gendered body, through a poetic idiom that pushed the conventions of literary Urdu remains her most impressive feat. In 1989, following the lifting of General Zia’s martial law, Fahmida would return to Pakistan from exile. She continued her work, her writing, and her activism. Between 2009 and 2012, she served as the chief editor of the Urdu Dictionary Board, one of the many public-sector jobs she would undertake pertaining to languages and the arts. She remained a staunch voice for oppressed groups within Pakistan, especially the Baloch. She wrote her last book of poetry, ‘Tum Kabir : You Kabir’, dedicated to her son who died an untimely death, leaving her all too soon.

Today, as we are left bereft of her skillful working of the sharp insights of materialist feminism into the subtle plays of Urdu verse, let us remember her most for her unfailing commitment to the principles of justice, dignity and equality for oppressed classes everywhere. Let us remember her in her own words from her poem, ‘Condolence Resolutions’:

This corpse belongs to a being
Who said whatever she wanted
Was never repentant, lifelong.
Do not let the authorities own my corpse.

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Adapted by the Author from her article,’Don’t make my corpse apologise: lessons in dissidence from Fahmida Riaz’, published in Pakistan’s daily Dawn on December 4, 2018.

Sara Kazmi is pursuing a PhD in Criticism and Culture at the University of Cambridge. Her research focuses on progressive Punjabi poetry in India and Pakistan. She has been extensively involved with performing street theatre and protest music in Lahore, Pakistan, and in particular, is drawn to questions of gender, regional identity, and radical language politics.

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Women Who Named the Unnamed
Pakistan’s & Local Women Heroes

Saturday, September 28, 2019
6 – 9 PM
Centre Stage
Surrey City Hall
13450 – 104 Avenue
Surrey, BC, Canada V3T 1V8
Phone: 604-591-4011

Buy your ticket online at this link:
tickets.surrey.ca
Tickets $25
Box Office : 604-501-5566

More information
Women-who-named-the-unnamed
In-gratitude-we-celebrate-our-women-heroes
View our objectives and goals.

We gratefully acknowledge
that we are on the unceded Coast Salish territories of
the Semiahmoo, Katzie, Kwikwetlem, Kwantlen,
Qayqayt, Tsawwassen, Musqueam,
Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh First Nations.

..